TIP

Here is the list of the Egyptian Dynasties and their Pharaohs (the dates vary from source to source, I am using the list as can be found in N. Grimmal’s A History of Ancient Egypt. The dates and the short descriptions from M. Rice Who’s Who in Ancient Egypt):

1069 – 747 B.C.     The Third Intermediate Period

1069 – 945 Dynasty XXI

1069 – 1043 B.C. Smendes was the High Priest in Thebes who declared himself king after the death of Ramesses XI, thus establishing the twenty-first dynasty. He established himself in Tanis, which would remain the power-base for this dynasty until its end in 945 B.C..

1043 – 1039B.C. Amenemnisu was the son of Smendes. He ruled for only four years and little is known of his reign. He died when he was only twenty-six years old.

1039 – 993 B.C. Pseusennes I was the son of Pinudjem I, the High Priest of Thebes, and Henuttawy, a daughter of Ramesses XI. He was to rule for nearly half a century. At the beginning, secular and religious powers were separate, however, eventually Pseusennes combined the titles and power under his own name or by naming his relatives, a practice that became quite common during this dynasty.

Mask of Amenemope

993 – 984 B.C. Amenemope it is uncertain in what order the kings of the twenty-first dynasty came, or if some even existed. Amenemope is considered the fourth king, who did not rule for long. He assumed the title of High Priest like those who came before him.

924 – 889 B.C. Osorkon I was the son of Seshonq I, the High Priest of Thebes. He enjoyed a relatively long and peaceful reign. Egypt was exceptionally rich and he built extensively. When he was an old man, he appointed his son, Seshonq II as his successor and they ruled jointly. However, Shesonq died before his father and thus never ruled independently.

978 – 959 B.C. Siamun was one of the Tanite kings, he pursued a vigorous policy abroad as an attempt to re-establish Egypt’s position in the outside world. During his time there was another outbreak of grave robbing and Siamun organised the removal of royal mummies from the Valley of the Kings. They were then placed in the tomb of Pinudjem II, the High Priest of Amun and are now collectively known as the ‘Dier el-Bahri cache’.

959 – 945 B.C. Pseusennes II was the last king of this dynasty. He ruled from Tanis, but in reality he had very little power.

945 – 714 B.C. Dynasty XXII

Sheshonq I as a sphinx

945 – 924 B.C. Sheshonq I was the founder of the twenty-second dynasty which had its origins in Libya. Sheshonq himself was the Great Chief of Ma and the son-in-law of Pseusennes II. He was a skilled politician and succeeded in establishing his family into positions of power throughout Egypt through marriages and appointments of his sons. He conducted military campaigns against the kingdoms of Israel and Judah and subdued them. He had also tried to re-establish the power of Egypt over Nubia, though not as successfully.

 

924 – 889 B.C. Osorkon I was the son of Seshonq I, the High Priest of Thebes. He enjoyed a relatively long and peaceful reign. Egypt was exceptionally rich and he built extensively. When he was an old man, he appointed his son, Seshonq II as his successor and they ruled jointly. However, Shesonq died before his father and thus never ruled independently.

Sheshonq II’s funerary gold mask

890 – 889 B.C. Sheshonq II was the son of Osorkon I with whom he reigned briefly. He died before his father therefore he never reigned independently. However, during his brief reign, the administrative system his grandfather, Sheshonq I, had set up, was beginning to fail. Sheshonq II attempted to correct the situation, though he did not succeed, most likely because he died before he could bring about a change.

 

 

 

889 -874 B.C. Takelot I was another son of Osorkon I, who succeeded in ruling for fifteen years, though nothing remarkable happened during his reign. Osorkon seemed to have difficulties in controlling his own family, the High Priest of Thebes, one of his sons, refused to accept his authority.

874 – 850 B.C. Osorkon II was the sob of Takelot I. He proved himself as an energetic king, who succeeded in suppressing rivals to the high priesthood of Thebes. After the death of the High Priest, his brother, Osorkon appointed one of his own sons as the new priest. He was also active in promoting closer relationships with Egypt’s neighbours, seeking alliances against the rising power of Assyria, though he remained in good relations with them until his death.

850 – 825 B.C. Takelot II was the son of Osorkon II. His power base was in Thebes, not in Tanis, where the high priests have set up a rival dynasty opposite the Tanite kings, thus dividing the country for a long time.

825 – 773 B.C. Sheshonq III found himself ruling a smaller territory because by the time he reached the throne there were already two, if not more, rival kings. However, Sheshonq succeeded in ruling over a small part of the Delta for over fifty years.

773 – 767 B.C. Pimay was a king who ruled in Bubastis, a city sacred to the cat-goddess, Bastet. It seemed that  he was strongly associated with cats, his alternative name, Pimiu, means ‘Tom-Cat’.

730 – 715 B.C. Osorkon IV came to the throne with virtually no power. What little he had been restricted to Tanis and Bubastis. There were four rival kings at this time in the north, and Osorkon was most exposed to the threat of Assyria in the north-east. He tried to assist the Israelite kings, but fear of the Assyrians made him turn to them with gifts. However, after this Osorkon seemed to disappear and the twenty-second dynasty was extinguished.

818 – 715 B.C. Dynasty XXIII

818 – 793 B.C. Pedubastis proclaimed himself king though his origins are unknown. He was the first king of the twenty-third dynasty, and in 818 B.C. he was recognised as the king of Upper and Lower Egypt. His family might have originated from Libya so there almost certainly was a familial connection to one of the small royal houses of that period. He ruled Egypt for nearly twenty-five years.

783 – 777 B.C. Sheshonq IV was the successor of Iuput, who ruled without event.

777 – 749 B.C. Osorkon III was the great-grandson of Osrokon II, and might have been the son of Sheshonq IV. He was the High Priest of Thebes, and part of his duties was to become head of the army. When Sheshonq died, Osorkon succeeded him to the throne and did his best to contain the power of his rivals. He died a very old man.

Relief of Takelot III in Karnak

764 – 757 B.C. Takelot III was the son of Osorkon III. He was the High Priest at Thebes ans was chosen by his father to succeed him. Egypt was already fragmented when he reached the throne and his reign did not bring any improvement.

 

 

 

757 – 754 B.C. Rudamun was the brother of Takelot. Much of his reign passed into obscurity. He ruled for four years.

Relief of Iuput II

754 – 715 B.C. Iuput II appears to have been recognised as king in Thebes, but ultimately Piankhy, the  first Kushite king of Egypt, was able to assert his authority over most of the country. Iuput was appointed as Governor of Leontopolis.

74 – 716 B.C. Peftjauawybast was one of the kinglets who very limited power in Heraclepolis before Egypt was invaded by the Kushites. He was married to the daughter of Rudamun and may have originally been high priest. He surrendered Heraclepolis to Piankhy.

747 – 716 B.C. Nimlot was another kinglet of the time, and when Piankhy invaded Egypt and all the kinglets surrendered to him. For some reason, Piankhy thought highly of Nimlot and allowed him to retain control of Ashmunein.

727 – 715 B.C. Dynasty XXIV

727 – 716 B.C. Tefnakhte was the prince of Sais in western Delta. He came from an ancient family associated with the Chief Priests of Ma. During the troubled times of this period, Tefnakhte took the opportunity to take over Memphis, and he opposed the rulers of Leonyopolis and Tanis. His expansion attempts were finally halted by Piankhy. He refused to follow the other kinglets and seemed to succeed to retain his independent power in Sais. After Piankhy returned to Nubia, Tefnakhte took this opportunity to seize power and proclaim himself king of Upper and Lower Egypt. He reigned for eight years.

727 – 715 B.C. Bakenrenef was the son of Tefnakhte. He succeeded his father upon his death and may have ruled as far south as Memphis. However, he was eventually defeated by Shabaka, a Kushite king. Some claim that he was burned alive.

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