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Here is the list of the Egyptian Dynasties and their Pharaohs (the dates vary from source to source, I am using the list as can be found in N. Grimmal’s A History of Ancient Egypt. The dates and the short descriptions from M. Rice Who’s Who in Ancient Egypt):1552 – 1069 B.C. – The New Kingdom

1552 – 1314 B.C.    Dynasty XVIII

1550 – 1525 B.C. or 1552 – 1526 B.C. Ahmose was the founder of the eighteenth dynasty and was probably a child when his brother Kamose died. HIs mother, Ahhotep was regent till he gained his powers at the age of sixteen. He then expelled the Hylsos and united yet again the two Egypts. His reign was also marked with great building of royal and temple building of high level of craftmanship. Egypt also resumed her former relations with the outside world. He died when he was around thirty-five years.
Amenhotep I and his mother

1525 0 1504 B.C. or 1526 – 1506 B.C. Amenhotep I was the son of Ahmose and Ahmose Nefertiry. He is considered a great king, and an energetic ruler, who ruled Egypt for thirty-five years, though not many records remain from his reign. He was a forceful warrior who continued the military campaigns his father began and went as far north as the Euphrates. He also made his presence in the south known, to ward off any invasion attempts by the Nubians. He also continued his father’s building projects. He was buried with his mother Dair el-Bahri.

The collosal head of Thutmose I

1504 – 1492 B.C. 1506 – 1493 B.C. Tuthmosis I, Amenhotep I’s son seemed to have died at infancy and therefore his successor was a general in his army who most likely a son-in-law or brother-in-law. He reigned for thirteen years in which he campaigned in Syria and Nubia. HIs tomb is found in the Valley of the Kings, thought to have been the first king to buried there.

A drawing of Thutmose II’s mummified head

1493 – 1479 B.C. Tuthmosis II was the son of Thutmose I from one of his lesser wives. He ruled for thirteen years and died of a sudden illness.

The statue of Thutmose III

1479 – 1425 B.C. Tuthmosis III was the son of Thutmose II and was just a young boy when his father died. Hatshepsut, his aunt and step-mother, took over as regent. She eventually took over the throne as king and ruled Egypt for the next twenty years while Thutmose remained in the background. After her death, most likely brought about by natural causes, Thutmose took over the throne as sole ruler and spent the rest of his reign deleting her name from her monuments and from the pages of history. HIs was a reign of prosperity and prestige, he also began military campaigns which extended the influence of Egypt throughout the entirety of the Middle East. Thutmose is considered by many as the greatest king of Egypt, not only because of his campaigns but also because of the many colossal building that took place during his reign and because he was also a great scholar. His reign lasted for fifty-four years.

The statue of Hatshepsut

1478 – 1458 B.C. Hatshepsut was the daughter of Thutmose I and the wife and half-sister of Thutmose II. She took over the throne as regent for the boy Thutmose III, later taking full power of the throne and becoming the sole ruler of Egypt, leaving Thutmose in the background. Her reign was also a peaceful and prosperous one, though there were military campaigns that were commanded by Thutmose III. In the twentieth year of her reign, Hatshepsut disappeared, though there is no reason to believe that her death was caused by anything but natural causes. Some time later, her name was eradicated from her monuments and from the pages of history.

The statue of Amenhotep II

1425 – 1401 B.C. Amenhotep II was the son of Thutmose II and was among the first kings of Egypt to grow up with horses. He, like his father before him, was a great warrior, but unlike Thutmose, he could be cruel. He fought in three major campaigns in Syria and had to deal with the uprisings that were occurring in Nubia, a problem that would continue into the reign of his successor, Thutmose IV.

1401 – 1390 B.C. Tuthmosis IV was the younger son of Amenhotep II who reigned for only nine years and died while he was still just a young man. It is said that when he was a prince, he fell asleep, where the sphinx laid buried at the time under sand, and dreamed of sphinx asking him to clear the sand away and in return he’ll become the king of the two Egypts. He did so and became the king, though he was not the eldest son of Amenhotep.

1390 – 1352 B.C. Amenhotep III was the son of Thutmose IV and was just a young boy when he succeeded his father making his mother regent for the first few years of her reign. His reign was a peaceful, and a prosperous one, though there were some trouble along Egypt’s borders that were to become a serious problem later on. Amenhotep was a great building, even greater than the kings who came before him. He was always portrayed as a young handsome prince, however, towards the end of his life he might have been suffering a long-term illness which eventually led to his death as his portraits show him as fat and dropsical.

Akhenaten wearing the Blue Crown

1352 – 1348 B.C./ 1348 – 1338 B.C. Amenhotep IV/Akhenaten was the son of Amenhotep III. In the fifth year of his reign, Amenhotep IV proclaimed the supremacy of Aten and changed his name to Akhenaten. Aten had already gained popularity during the reign of Amenhotep III and his wife Tiy was a fanatic devotee. The art had changed, some claiming that it showed a fresh approach to the mainstream that ruled the art till then. This was known as the “Amarna style”. Akhenaten was once considered the first monotheist, though this is not quite true. With all the religious reformation, Akhenaten was not a good politician, he neglected his foreign policies and did not come to the aid of Egypt’s allies in the Middle East when they needed it. Changes were rippling throughout the area which will later affect Egypt. He left the city of Thebes and built a new capital known as El-Amarna. His marriage to Nefertiti is one of the most remembered things about Akhenaten’s reign, a marriage which produced six daughters, though at one point there seems to have been a rift between the two. His seventeenth year was the last recorded year and it is unknown what happened what happened at the end of reign.

1338 – 1336 B.C. Smenkhare (?) might have been the son of Akhenaten, but their exact relationship is obscure. It might have been because of this relationship that there was a rift between Akhenaten and Nefertiti. Smenkhare co-ruled with Akhenaten and at some point received some of the titles that used to belong to Nefertiti (there is a theory that Smenkhare was in fact Nefertit). Smenkhare only ruled for three years before he died, and was succeeded by Tutankhaten who might have been his brother.

The gold death mask of Tutankhamun

1336 – 1327 B.C. Tutankhaten/Tutankhamun was only a boy of nine when he came to the throne. The priests of Amun took this opportunity to eradicate the cult of Aten and took him back to Thebes and renamed him Tutankhamun. He might have been the son of Akhenaten’s, he did, however, marry Akhenaten and Nefertiti’s daughter, Ankhesenamun. His reign seemed to be peaceful’ though there were military campaigns being carried out in Syria. He died at a young age of nineteen, his skull has a wound that for a long time was used as evidence for murder, but this is not likely the case. The reason Tutankhamun is such a well-known king is because his tomb was largely intact when it was found by British Egyptologist Howard Carter in 1922.

Statue of Ay

1327 – 1323 B.C. Ay was the son of Yuya and Tuyu, the parents of Amenhotep’s III wife, Tiy. It is possible that he was the father of Nefertiti, and was a high-ranking courtier at the court of Akhenaten. After Akhenaten’s death he did all he could to erase Akhenaten’s nae and religion from the pages of history and to restore the religion of Amun. After the death of Tutankhamun, Ay secured by marrying his widow Ankhesenamun. However, he was already an old man when he took over the throne and so he ruled for only four years.

Statue of Horemhab

1323 – 1295 B.C. Horemheb was a commoner who came from an obscure family. During the reign of Akhenaten he raised high because of his talents. During Tutankhamun’s reign he became the general of the armies and fought in military campaigns in Nubia. He did not resist the accession of Ay because of his age, and after Ay died, Horemheb was proclaimed king. Egypt flourished under him and he did his best to get rid of all corruption at court. He was also an extensive builder. Horemheb ruled for about twenty-eight years, he had no son and therefore, when he died, so did the great eighteenth dynasty.

 

 

1295 – 1188 B.C      Dynasty XIX

Statue of Ramesses I

1295 – 1294 B.C. Ramsses I was a soldier, and he held a high civil office and who was in charge of Egypt’s foreign policy. He was chosen by Horemheb to be his successor and thus he founded the nineteenth dynasty. Because his family hailed from the north, he kept his family’s loyalty to the god Set, therefore his son was named Seti in honour of Set. Ramesses ruled for less than two years before he died.

The mummified head of Seti I

1294 – 1279 B.C. Seti I was the son of Ramsses I. He too was a high-ranking officer in the army who dealt with Egypt’s foreign policy. It was he who eventually restored Egyypt’s international status in the Middle East, by leading a few military campaigns against the Hittites. He also continued Horemheb’s policy of erasing all evidence that remained of the Amarna period, and though his family is from the north with loyalties to Set, Thebes remained the capital and the religious centre of Egypt.

Head of Ramesses II In Abu Simbal

1279 – 1212 B.C. Ramesses II was the son of Seti I and was trained to be the next king of Egypt from a very young age. He ascended the throne when he was in his twenties and he was to rule the next sixty-seven years. Ramsses II is remembered chiefly for the building of massive monuments throughout all of Egypt. He had many wives, though his favorite seemed to be Nefertiri, and had many children. He continued restoring and improving Egypt’s economic state and foreign status, and his reign was generally a peaceful one. Ramesses was an old man when he died (approx. 92 years old!) and had therefore outlived many of his sons. It was his thirteenth child who succeeded him. Some claim that his long reign is what eventually brought down the nineteenth dynasty.

Statue of Merenptah

1212 – 1202 B.C. Merneptah was the thirteenth son of Ramesses and already an old man when he ascended the throne, he was generally a good ruler, though less dazzling than his father. He was chiefly occupied with Egypt’s foreign policies and even was said to give the Hittites (enemies of his father and grandfather) bags of grain in their hour of need. Merenptah was also the pharaoh who was associated with the Exodus of the Hebrews (and not his father Ramesses), though there are no archaeological evidence to this. However, the famous Merenptah’s stela containing the list of cities that Merenptah encountered or conquered, there is a mention of a people known as Israel.

Amenmesse

1202 – 1199 B.C. Amenmesse was most likely a grandson of Ramesses as there were no other direct descendants. He reigned for a very brief time, though he was considered quite a good ruler who ruled over most of Egypt with his power base in the south. After his death, his name was erased from memory, likely the work of opposing parties who wished to gain control of the throne.

Seti II

1202 –  1196 B.C. Seti II was considered the right heir of Merenptah whose throne was usurped by Amenmesse. His reign is largely unknown and he ruled over Egypt for only five years.

Sarcophagus of Siptah

1196 – 1190 B.C. Siptah was probably a son of Seti II. He was born a cripple as is evidenced from his mummy. He was just a child when he ascended the throne and therefore his step-mother, Twosre, acted as regent till he came of age.

Wall painting of Twosret

1190 – 1188 B.C. Twosret was the wife of Seti II and the step-mother of Siptah. It was the last years of the nineteenth dynasty and Egypt was in turmoil again. This was blamed on Twosret and her Syrian advisor, Bay. After the death of Siptah, Twosret continued to rule Egypt for two years until her own death.

 

 

 

 

1188 – 1069  Dynasty XX (AKA the Ramesside dynasty)

1188 – 1186 B.C. Sethnakhte was the founder of the twentieth dynasty and a very obscure figure. It is unknown what his relationship was with the previous dynasty, if there were any, but he came to power in the aftermath of the troubled period at the end of the nineteenth dynasty. He died rather suddenly, afetr only two years, therefore there was no tomb ready for, so Twosret’s mummy was tossed out of her tomb and he was buried there instead.

Osiride form of Ramesses III at Medinat Habu

1186 – 1154 B.C. Ramsses III was the second ruler of the twentieth dynasty and he modeled himself after Ramesses II by naming himself Ramesses. This tradition will  continue til the end of the dynasty. Though Ramesses was a formidable ruler and a warrior, luck was against him. It was during his reign that the Dier el-Medina workers (the ones who built the kings’ tombs in the Valley of the Kings) decided to strike for better pay. He also had to deal with an invasion via the Nile at the Delta of the Sea People, though he succeeded in defeating them and his victory is recorded on the walls of his mortuary temple. Towards the end of his life, Ramesses was the target of a heram plot which involved one of his wives. The plot was discovered on time, however, Ramesses died not long after.

Ostracon of Ramesses IV

1154 – 1148 B.C. Ramesses IV was the son of Ramsses III. One of the first things he did as king was to settle the strike of the workers which started just before Ramesses III’ died.  He was an extensive builder, though most of his monuments did not survive. Ramesses died only six years on the throne.

1148 – 1144 B.C. Ramesses V ascended the throne after the death of Ramesses IV and tried to deal with the already corrupted administration and taxation system. Ramesses died only after four years, though it is though that he died of chicken-pox, there are some who believe that his successor was responsible for this.

 

Ostracon of Ramesses VI

1144 – 1136 B.C. Ramesses VI was the successor of Ramesses V, he was most likely a son of Ramesses III. He seemed to resent those who took the throne from him and he might have been behind the death of Ramesses V.

 

 

 

 

1136 – 1129 B.C. Ramesses VII was the successor of Ramesses VI and little of his reign is known other than the serious decline that can be seen in Egypt as it decended towards the Third Intermediate Period. He reigned for only seven years, and was the last of Ramesses III’s sons.

1129 – 1128 B.C. Ramesses VIII was the successor of Ramesses VII. Nothing is known of his reign. He ruled for only one year.

Stela of Ramesses IX

1128 – 1107 B.C. Ramesses IX was the successor of Ramesses VIII, and was a change from the short-lived kings before him. He ruled for almost twenty years, during which he built extensively and he was the first to investigate the scandals of the grave robbers.

 

 

 

1107 – 1098 B.C. Ramesses X was the successor of Ramesses IX. Nothing is known of his reign save that he ruled for ten years.

1098 – 1069 B.C. Ramesses XI was the last of the Ramesside kings. He reigned for almost thirty years, and he had to deal with trouble in the north and the west. During his reign, the priests of Thebes were gaining power and were beginning to challenge the royal authority and even taking on themselves royal titles. Also, the problem of grave robbing only got worse.

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