MK

Here is the list of the Egyptian Dynasties and their Pharaohs (the dates vary from source to source, I am using the list as can be found in N. Grimmal’s A History of Ancient Egypt. The dates and the short descriptions from M. Rice Who’s Who in Ancient Egypt):2040 – 1674 B.C. – The Middle Kingdom

2040 – 1991 B.C.     Dynasty XI (Cont. now ruling over all of Egypt)

Mentuhotep II

2055 – 2004 B.C. or 2055 – 2009  Mentuhotpe II was one of the greatest kings of Egypt. He was the son of Inyotef III and he established a strong central government that controlled and united the two Egypts once more, thus reducing the power of the provincial nobles who gained much power after the fall of the sixth dynasty.

Mentuhotep III

2004 – 1992 B.C. or 2009 – 1997 B.C. S’ankhkare Mentuhotpe III was the son of Mentuhotpe II, who succeeded his father after a long reign and was already quite old. He was a remarkable builder, even by Middle Kingdom standards and his was a peaceful, though short-lived, reign.

1992 – 1984 B.C. or 1997 – 1991 B.C. Nebtawyre Mentuhotpe IV was the last king of the eleventh dynasty. The exact relationship between him and the kings before him is unknown. He is chiefly remembered because of his vizier, Amenemhet. It is not known what fate befell this unknown king, but he seemed to disappear and Amenemhet is proclaimed the new king of Upper and Lower Egypt.

1991 – 1785 B.C.     Dynasty XII

Amenemhet I

1985 – 1955 or 1991 – 1962 B.C. Ammenemes I was the founder of the twelfth dynasty. He had previously served the king Mounthotep IV as his vizier, and when the latter disappeared, Amenemes was proclaimed the king of the Two Lands. He is considered one of the greatest of Egypt’s kings, a dedicated builder, as well as an able ruler. He reduced the provincial powers further and instituted a tightly controlled central administration. The twelfth dynasty goes on to be one of the most successful dynasties which lasted for two centuries. It is unknown how he died, however, there is a theory that he was assassinated in a harem conspiracy after a reign of thirty years. He too is credited with writing a document known as ‘Instructions’ which he wrote to his son Senwosret.

Sesostris I

1965 – 1920 B.C. 1962 – 1928 B.C. Sesostris I was the son of Amenemhet I, and he was in Lybia when he heard news of his father’s death. In order to succeed his father, he had to rush back to Egypt. He went on to be another great king, a great builder and agreat ruler and commander. Senwosret was worshipped as a god for centuries after his death.

A sphinx with the face of Amenemhat II

1922 – 1878 B.C. or 1928 – 1895 B.C. Ammenemes II was the son of Senwosret I, and he came to Egypt in a peaceful time. During his reign, he encouraged trade and widening contact with Egypt’s neighbours.

1880 – 1874 B.C. or 1895 – 1878 B.C. Sesostris II was the son of Amenemhet II, and though he wasn’t as good as his namesake, his grandfather Senwosret I, he was nonethless a successful king. He made Egypt the dominant power in the Middle East. He too donated large building projects to the already existing –  architecture.
The statues of Senwosret III

1878 – 1842 B.C. Sesostris III was the greatest king og the twelve dynasty. He reorganised Egypt’s bureaucracy. He also built a number of fortresses along the Egyptian border in order to secure Egypt from any outside threat. He is famously remembered by the series of statues of him, each portraying him at a different stage in life.

Statuette of Amenemhet III

1855 – 1808 B.C. or 1842 – 1797 B.C. Ammenemes III was the son of Senwosret III. His reign saw Egypt as an international power and of prosperity. His building projects were immense, including his mortuary temple at Hawara which was once thought to habe been the origin to the legend of the Labyrinth.

 

 

 

 

1808 – 1799 B.C. or 1797 – 1790 B.C. Ammenemes IV was the last king of the twelve dynasty and was the lest fortunate of the twelve dynasty kings. He reigned for only a few years and Egypt was already decending into another period of unrest. The provincial nobles were again gaining power and the central government was already losing power over Egypt.

1799 – 1795 B.C. or 1790 – 1785 B.C. Sobkneferu was the sister-wife of Amenemhat IV, her name is included in the Saqqara King List. She adopted the styles and the titles of a king, and she ruled over Egypt in the twilight of the twelfth dynasty.

1785-1633 B.C.    Dynasties XIII and XIV

1795 B.C. Wegaf was the founder of the thirteenth dynasty, reigning for less than two years. Over the next two centuries he was followed but a long list of kings who did not last for long.

1750 B.C.  Sobekhotep I was the first king in the thirteenth dynasty to identify himself with the crocodile-god, Sobek. He reigned for only five years.

Sobekhotep II was probably not of royal blood.

The Ka of Awibre-Hor, with eyes!

Awibre Hor is remembered for the unusual wooden shrine which was found in his burial place in Dahshur. It contains a life-size statue of the king as a naked man stepping away from its protection. HIs statue seems uneeringly life-like because its inlaid eyes are still intact.

 

 

 

 

Userkare Khendjer is largely unknown, however, it would appear that he ruled successfully and was able to commond loyalty over much of Egypt, even during those trouble times.

1715 – 1704 B.C. Ibiya was unusual for a thirteenth dynasty king in that he lasted for eleven years, though it is likely that his reign was limited to the south and to Nubia.

Statue of Neferhotep I

1741 – 1730 B.C. Neferhotep I was one of the more successful kings of this dynasty. He reigned for about nine years and built his pyramid at El-Lisht. He was not of royal blood, but he earned the respect of later generations. He also succeeded in keeping relations with Lebanon and Nubia and was considered very religious.

1745 B.C. Sobekhotep III was not of royal blood, but was of noble birth. He reigned for three years, and had many monuments built during this time. He had a large family whose members he gave positions of influence in the state
Statue of Sobekhotepr IV

1725 B.C . Sobekhotep IV was the brother of Neferhotep I. During his reign, he lost his control over Avaris, a city in the north, to the Hyksos. He was king for eight years. After him came Sobekhotep V and Sobekhotep VI, though ruled for such a short time that they are largly unknown.

 

 

 

 

1704 – 1690 B.C. Merneferre Iy was a king of the thirteenth dynasty. He ruled for twenty-four years, so it is most likely that he accepted the role of vassal to the Hyksos rulers.

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