Timeline

Egyptologists have divided the history of Egypt into ten main periods, though, like many periods in history, these are fictitious and many Egyptologists have their own idea as to when each period began and ended. In my opinion, it is very hard to establish such a change unless something drastic happens and even then it can be associated strongly with the previous period. But in history, historians like to divide time because it is easier (?) to understand history that way. Here is a rough timeline of Ancient Egyptian history, and I have given here several examples at how many varying timelines can be found on the web and in books (the first three are from the web, the last one is from a book entitled: Nicolas Grimal, A History of Ancient Egypt (trans: Ian Shaw) (United Kingdom, 2003).

Predynastic Period – c. 3500 – c. 3100 B.C. or c. 3100 – c. 2950 B.C. or – c. 3100 B.C. or c. 4500 – c. 3150 B.C.

 

A sample of pottery made in the Predynastic Period (c. 3500 – c. 3100 B.C.).

This piece may have originated from Abydos.

 

 

 

 

Early Dynastic Period – c. 3100 – c. 2700 B.C. or c. 2950 – 2575 B.C. or c. 3100 B.C. – c. 2700 B.C.or c. 3150 – c. 2700 B.C.

 

 

Narmer’s Palette – c. 3100 B.C.

Supposedly shows the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt at the hands of king Narmer.

 

 

Old KIngdom – c. 2700 – c. 2200 B.C. or c. 2575 – c. 2150 B.C. or c. 2700 – c. 2184 B.C. or c. 2700 – c. 2190 B.C.

 

The classical picture of the Pyramids of Giza belonging to the three pharaohs of the fourth dynasty: Khufu, his son Khafre , and his grandson Menkaura (c. 2600 B.C.).

The Pyramid of Khufu was, and still is, considered one of the seven wonders of the ancient world.

 

 

First Intermediate Period – c. 2200 – c. 2055 B.C. or c. 2150 – c. 1975 B.C. or c. 2184 – c. 2040 B.C. or c. 2200 – c. 2040 B.C.

 

 

A funerary Stela of an official from the First Intermediate Period (c. 2100 B.C.)

 

 

 

 

Middle Kingdom – c. 2055 – c. 1650 B.C. or c. 1975 – c. 1640 B.C. or c. 2040 – c. 1782 B.C. or c. 2040 – c. 1674 B.C.

 

The first recognised king of the Middle Kingdom: Mentuhotep II (c. 2060 – 2010 BC).

He was a second Narmer, the king attributed to be the first king to reunite Upper and Lower Egypt after the division of the two Egypts during the First Intermediate Period.

 

 

 

Second Intermediate Period – c. 1650 – c. 1550 B.C. or c. 1640 – c. 1520 B.C. or c. 1782 – c. 1570 B.C. or c. 1674 – c. 1553 B.C.

  The Second Intermediate Period is also known as the period of the Hyksos rulers. The Hyksos were a semitic people who entered Egypt around the twentieth century B.C. and were rulers of the Delta (Lower Egypt) by the mid-seventeeth century B.C.

This is a picture represents the people who came to be known as the Hyksos (‘the shepherd kings’ or ‘the foreign rulers’) entering Egypt as merchants along with their families from the tomb of a Middle Kingdom official located at Beni Hasan.

There are scholars who believe that these are not the Hyksos but rather Jacob and his sons coming into Egypt. 

New Kingdom – c. 1550 – c. 1100 B.C. or c.1520 – c. 1075 B.C. or c. 1570 – c. 1070 B.C. or c. 1552 – c. 1069 B.C.

 

Probably the most famous face of Ancient Egypt, here is the mask of the pharaoh Tut-ankh-amon, the boy-king (c. 1341 – c. 1323 B.C.) who was discovered by Howard Carter and Co in 1922.

Also the source of the modern-day legends of the mummy’s curse.

 

 

 

 

Third Intermediate Period – c. 1100 – c. 728 B.C. or c.1075 – c. 715 B.C. or c. 1070 – c. 747 B.C. or c. 1069 – c. 702 B.C.

 

 

The sarcophagus belonging to a royal prince of the Theban court from the Third Intermediate Period (c. 1075 – c. 945 B.C.)

 

 

 

Late Period – c. 728 – c. 332 B.C or c. 715 – c. 332 B.C. or c. 747 – c. 332 B.C. or c. 747 – c. 332 B.C.

 

 

The bust of a Kushite king from the Late Period (c. 732 – c. 332 B.C.). From the Late Period onwards Egypt is no longer under the rule of the Egyptian Pharaohs. First the Nubians invaded Egypt, then the Persians came. The Persians were defeated by the Macedonian King known as Alexander the Great in 332 B.C. (Incidentally, this is the only date that most Egyptologists agree when drawing out the Ancient Egyptian timeline).

 

 

 

Classical Period (Hellenic/Roman) – c. 332 B.C. – c. 380 A.D. or c. 332 B.C. – c. 395 A.D. or c. 332 B.C. – c. 395 A.D.

 

The bust of one of the most famous men from the Ancient World: Alexander III of Macedon, also known as Alexander the Great. Most historians/Egyptologists agree to the date when the Hellenistic/Roman Period in Egypt began, with Alexander conquering Egypt from under the Persians in 332 B.C.

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1 Comment (+add yours?)

  1. Card Payoneer
    Nov 07, 2014 @ 06:41:01

    Cel mai bun articol despre Timeline | Ancient Egypt pe care l-am citit!

    Reply

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